Research and development (R & D) or R & D (Research and Development * (Eng.)) Is a set of activities / services, including both research, experimentation, search, research, and the production of experimental and small-scale samples products (prototypes or test samples), prior to the launch of a new product / service or technology / system in industrial production. R & D expenditures (Research and Development) are an important indicator of the innovation activity of a company or enterprise. However, R & D expenses are recognized regardless of whether they gave a positive result or not.
For the implementation of R & D, it is necessary to allocate budgets (financing) for R & D, as well as the availability of highly qualified personnel, whose tasks include the implementation of the R & D complex. R & D activities should be carried out in accordance with a clear action plan, divided into stages.
Very often, R & D work and services (Research and Development and Development) are accompanied by the following types of work:
Scientific Research Work (SRW),
Development Work (OCD),
Technological Work (TR)
other research work aimed at obtaining and using new knowledge.
What is the main difference between R & D from other activities?
The main difference between research and development (R & D) and related activities in an enterprise is the presence of a novelty element in the development. In this case we are talking about the creation (development) of a new type of technology, products, services, etc.
R & D purpose
What is R & D for?
R & D allows to reduce the costs of enterprises after the introduction of innovations, increase the speed of capital circulation, bring a new product or service to the market, reducing risks, and so on.
A bit of history about R & D and attitudes
Until recently, R & D was considered as one of the areas of activity of commercial organizations. However, since the mid-90s of the last century, R & D has emerged as a separate type of business. A large number of companies appeared that carried out R & D and R & D for various economic entities (including the state). In Russia, such organizations include numerous research institutes, experimental design bureaus, research departments of universities, etc.
World market of R & D, general trends in the dynamics of the R & D market
According to research institutes, global R & D expenditures are increasing worldwide and make up a market worth more than a trillion USD (US dollars). The first places in terms of R & D volume are mainly occupied by countries with a developed economy, such as: USA, Japan, Great Britain, European countries, etc. (their market shares and rankings are constantly changing).
Recently, developing countries such as China and India have become very active. Russia is among the top ten world leaders in R & D and its share in the R & D services market is constantly increasing.
Due to the choice of the development course with a focus on the domestic market (import substitution), Russia has a special and primary interest in the development of the R & D market.
BASIC TERMS AND DEFINITIONS FOR R & D
Scientific development - carried out by the order of the company / firm and / or their organizations, may differ in the following types of work: research (R & D), developmental (R & D), technological work, or other research work aimed at obtaining and using new knowledge on the activities of the company or organization (hereinafter abbreviated as R & D).
Innovation - Innovation
Innovation activity is an activity that results in creating a new product, creating or improving an existing technology, developing new equipment, automation tools, software systems, organizational and management decisions in the structure of an organization / company.
R & D life cycle
The life cycle of R & D is the period from the beginning of scientific research to the cessation of useful results from the use of this development.
R & D performance evaluation
When evaluating the effectiveness of R & D, a calculation period is used, which is divided into steps (0.1 ...) and measured in years. It includes the following stages: scientific research, development work, production of industrial designs, mass production, the use of manufactured products or technologies in the production and economic practice, the elimination (recycling) of products.
For scientific developments that are not related to the creation of a new technology, the estimated period usually includes scientific research and the direct use of its results in the production and business activities of a company / enterprise.
Равным образом сложившаяся структура организации представляет собой интересный эксперимент проверки существенных финансовых и административных условий. Значимость этих проблем настолько очевидна, что дальнейшее развитие различных форм деятельности влечет за собой процесс внедрения и модернизации форм развития.