Industrial Design

Industrial design is a creative activity whose goal is to determine the formal qualities of industrial products. These qualities include the external features of the product, but mainly those structural and functional relationships that make the product into a coherent whole, both from the point of view of the consumer, and from the point of view of the manufacturer.

The peculiarity of the design lies in the fact that each thing is considered not only from the point of view of benefits and beauty, but also in all the diversity of its connections in the process of functioning, that is, taking into account how the item will be transported, how it is packaged, where and what place it will take in the apartment, what to require care, how to turn on, etc. An integrated systematic approach to the design of each thing - the meaning of design. Since design deals with items produced by mass-circulation industry, they must satisfy the taste of many people. It is interesting to note that the objects of design, as well as all works of art, bear the imprint of time, the level of technical progress and the social and political structure of society. If, for example, to trace how the sewing or typewriters looked at the beginning of the century and today, or to see how the shape of an ordinary teapot has changed over the past eighty years, then you can accurately determine what time each of these items belongs to.

Design plays an important role in the products of industrial creativity. The field of industrial design includes household appliances, dishes, furniture, machine tools, vehicles, industrial graphics, clothing, make-up, phyto-design and much more. Designers should participate in the search for the optimal Foma of each element, take into account how it depends on the working function (purpose) of the product and human relations. There are many examples that show the need to take into account the proportions of a person, the size of his hands (ergonomic requirements) in the design of buttons, control panels, instrument keys, the shape of a cup handles, etc.

Expressive design tools are common for plastic arts: point, line, texture, texture, color, shape, volume, proportion, mass and space. These elements are combined based on the principles of composition: symmetry, asymmetry, balance, rhythm and movement. The design has a wide application proportion of the golden section. Harmony and contrast as the universal means of art are the backbone in design. It is especially important for artistic design to take into account the dependence of the shape of the object on the materials used, structures and production technology. Basically, modern industrial production uses materials that can be combined into the following groups: wood, metal, glass, textiles, plastic materials (plastics, concrete, reinforced concrete) and the latest synthetic materials.

In the formation of furniture, for example, recently the use of new materials and structures has played a significant role. Tables and chairs, in which metal is used as the main material for structures, are distinguished by a more free, spatial organization, the possibility of complex transformations and a convenient layout when folded.

The artistic design of the spatial environment is not only the creation of things. Giving certain functional and aesthetic properties, features to things and the objective environment, the artist forms, or, one may say, “designs” a person who will use these things and live in this environment. Hence the important educational function of the design, its socio - cultural and socio - political role in the life of society.

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